Tag Archives: small estates

When does a Will Make Sense?

pot of goldDear Liza: A friend of mine is considering a living trust.  The only property he has is a coin collection maybe worth around $15,000.  He has an adult daughter who he doesn’t communicate with and does not want her to get anything.  He would like to leave the collection to me.  Is a living trust a good way to go listing me as the trustee or the beneficiary?  Or is doing a Will just as good? If the only property that your friend has is a coin collection, a simple Will should accomplish his goals.  A Will allows your friend to clearly state who should receive that collection upon his death. Assuming that $15,000 falls below the probate threshold in his state (called the “Small Estates Limit”), no probate would be required upon his death to transfer the collection to you. A living trust is just a way to avoid probate, but really serves no purpose in an estate that’s below the probate limit anyway. To determine the probate threshold in your friend’s state, start here.

Who Inherits When There’s No Beneficiary?

IRA moneyDear Liza: My dad named his mother as his beneficiary, but she passed away in 2004.  My dad died in 2013 but didn’t change his beneficiary. I am my father’s only child and he has no wife, so who gets the money ? When a person dies and there’s no surviving beneficiary named for an account, the assets would go that person’s “estate.” You don’t say what kind of account this is, but the most common kind of account with beneficiary designations would be a retirement account, so I’ll make that assumption (though most beneficiary accounts work the same way).

What that means is that, if your father left a Will, the assets in the account that you are describing would pass to the beneficiaries under that Will. If he had no Will, and you are his only child, you would be the beneficiary under the laws of the state that your father lived and died. (These are called “intestacy” laws, and they spell out who inherits if there’s no Will.)

But here’s the thing, your father’s estate may have to go through probate before the assets can be transferred to you. This depends on the size of your father’s estate, and where he lived and died. All states have what’s called a “small estates limit,” and if an estate falls below that limit, no probate is required.  I can’t tell from your question how big or small your father’s estate was, or where he lived. But that’s the relevant question for you to ask. If you don’t need to go through probate, there’s a way for you to request that the account be transferred to you without a court order; if you do need to go through probate, you’ll need a court order (which is how probate ends) to have the assets transferred to your name.  To find out the probate small estates limit in your father’s state, and how to transfer assets if his estate is under that limit, start here.

Can the Executor Give Away Estate Assets?

historic houseDear Liza: My husband is the sole executor (and only child) of his mother’s Will.  There are no other beneficiaries listed in her Will.  The only asset she had was a home which is valued at about $300,000.  Does he need to probate her Will?  As the executor can he sell the home to one of our children for $1.00? Whether or not your husband has to probate the Will depends upon your state’s small estates limit. In most states, an estate that falls below a certain threshold doesn’t have to go through a formal probate. To find out about your state’s small estate limit, click here. But my guess, is yes, a piece of real property that’s worth $300,000 doesn’t fall below that limit in any state that I can think of.

Whether or not your husband can sell the house for a dollar raises a different issue. The short answer is “No.” Your husband, as the executor, has to follow the terms of the Will (as does the probate court). So, at the end of the probate proceeding, the Court will distribute that house to your husband, since you’ve said that he’s the beneficiary under the Will. At that point, if he wants to sell it for 1$ to your kids, he can do so, BUT, the IRS will consider that a gift of the fair market value of the house, minus that one dollar. Essentially, your husband is giving the house to your kids, and pretending that he sold it to them, right? The IRS gets that, they’ve seen it before.

I’d advise your husband to consult with an estate planning attorney. Depending upon the terms of the Will and the time that’s passed since his mother died, he may be able to disclaim the gift and have it pass directly to your children, as a gift from their grandmother directly. A disclaimer is a legal no-thank-you that must be properly executed within nine months of the date of death and before a person has accepted any benefit from that gift. The house would pass to your children only if the Will says that, if your husband died first, it would then pass to his issue. (Not all Wills would say that, so this depends on what it says.)

If he can’t disclaim, he’s absolutely free to make such a gift himself. He’ll have to file a gift tax return by April of the following year, reporting the gift, but he won’t owe any gift tax on the gift because your husband, like all of us, currently has the ability to give up to $5.34 million during life or at death without paying any gift or estate tax.  The gift of $299,999 will use up that much of his available exemption, leaving him with a bit over $5 million more to use.

You also need to find out whether or not your state imposes an inheritance or estate tax. You’ve told me that you live in Pennsylvania, which does impose such a tax. Click here for a general guide to state inheritance and estate taxes, including Pennsylvania.

My Aunt Just Died. Can I See the Will?

mourning-108781_150Dear Liza: My wife’s Aunt just died. We went to the funeral because they had been rather close and she wanted to represent her mother’s side of the family. While attending there was a passing reference to how she and some other members of her family were in the Will. What should we expect at this point? Whose obligation is it to notify us? Do we have specific rights in this matter? I’m sorry to hear about your Wife’s Aunt. And all of the questions you are asking are such good ones!  Rules vary a bit state to state, but the general idea is that the person who has custody of the Will is required to lodge that Will with the probate court in the county where your Wife’s Aunt lived.  In California, where I practice, this is supposed to be done within 30 days of the death.  Once the Will is lodged (which means filed with the court), it is a public document, so you, your Wife, and anyone else can get access to it.

If your Wife’s Aunt had sufficient assets to require a probate proceeding, again this amount varies from state to state,  the executor named in the Will would petition the court to open a probate proceeding. This will require publication in a newspaper in the town the Aunt lived in — the idea is that probate is a public proceeding and publication gives notice to creditors who may want to file a claim against the estate.  Also, all of the Aunt’s heirs and beneficiaries would be notified of the probate, and, if anyone objects to the appointment of the executor or the validity of the Will, they can file their objections with the court.

If the Aunt’s assets fell below the limit for a probate proceeding, and here’s a list of the limits for various states, then no probate proceeding needs to be opened, but the Will should still be filed.

Small Estates: No Probate Necessary

Dear Liza: If there is no or very little property left under a will (because almost all was left under a revocable trust), and there are no known outstanding debts, is it necessary to file the will with the probate court (New York)?  If it is necessary, are probate court proceedings necessary? Check with the probate court in your county (called Surrogates Court in New York) as for Will filing requirements.  But it doesn’t sound like you’ll need to open a probate. Most states have some way for small estates to bypass a full-blown probate proceeding. In New York, if the property left is worth less than $30,000, you can settle the estate with what’s called a summary probate proceeding. Here’s a link to more info.  In other states, like California, if the total value of property is less than a certain amount, you can transfer the assets using what’s called a Small Estates Affidavit, after waiting for a certain number of days after the death.