Tag Archives: FMLA

It’s Evaluation Season! Don’t Forget the Maternity Projection Chart

storkManagers, do you enjoy giving employee evaluations? Many managers  don’t: They find it difficult to give constructive criticism, fit employee accomplishments and areas for improvements into their company’s evaluation form, or make time to sort back through their documentation for the year, complete the form, and meet with employees about it. But imagine how you would feel if the company’s evaluation form also included questions about the employee’s “maternity plans.” And then you had to use that information to help generate a “maternity projection chart,” purporting to calculate the likelihood that a particular female employee would have a child soon based on her age, marital status, and maternal status.

According to a complaint filed in a federal district court in New York, that’s what happened at the Institute for Integrative Nutrition. (Hat tip to the Employment Law Daily; they have also posted a copy of the court’s decision in favor of the employees.) The employees alleged not only that the chart was created, and that it included information only on female employees, but also that the employer used it in making employment decisions.

This is one of the stranger allegations in the case, but by no means the only allegations the employees made about discrimination, retaliation, and violation of FMLA rights at the Institute. Each of the named plaintiffs (they are bringing a class action) had quite a tale to tell, including comments by the company’s owner that “women’s priorities shift when they become mothers,” that one expecting employee should speak to her partner about whether it was “worth it,” because he “had never met a new mom that didn’t underestimate the sleep, time, exhaustion from a new baby,” and that he wouldn’t consider another woman for a promotion because she was “getting married, and her head was in another place.” Once they revealed their pregnancies or went out on leave, the women claimed that they faced different treatment, demotion, and ultimately discharge.

No judge or jury has determined whether these allegations are correct, because the case came up on a motion to dismiss. In other words, the employer was arguing that some of the employees’ claims were so weak that it should not even have to respond to them, right out of the gates. In fairness, the court tossed one allegation by one employee. (Her retaliation claim was thrown out because she didn’t allege that she had complained of discrimination before being mistreated.)  Otherwise, though, the employees won. Based on the allegations, it’s no surprise. What surprised me is that the employer found it worth arguing about, given the strength of the allegations.

 

Final FMLA Regulations Cover Veterans and More

On February 6, 2013, the Department of Labor issued its final regulations implementing statutory amendments to the FMLA. These regulations incorporate the amendments Congress passed in 2010. Among other things, the 2010 amendments:

  • tweaked the way eligibility and hours are calculated for flight crews
  • expanded the right to take qualifying exigency leave to cover not only employees with family members in the National Guard and Reserves, but also employees with family members in the regular armed forces, and
  • expanded the right to take military caregiver leave to cover not only employees with family members who were seriously injured while on active military duty, but also employees with family members who exacerbated a preexisting injury while on active duty and employees with family members who are veterans suffering from a serious injury incurred while on active duty.

About a year ago, the Department of Labor issued proposed regulations implementing these provisions and seeking input from the public on a few key issues, including how to implement the leave provision to care for a veteran. Rather than issuing proposed regulations on this topic, the Department decided to hold off until it had received comments and issued its final regulations. As a result, the Department delayed the effective date of this provision. Until it issued final regulations defining the key terms (including who qualifies as a veteran and what constitutes a serious injury for a veteran), the Department took the position that employers were not legally required to provide this type of FMLA leave.

That has now changed. As of the effective date of the final regulations (March 8, 2013), employers are now required to provide FMLA leave to employees who need time off to care for a family member who is a veteran and suffered a serious injury while on active duty.

The final regulations have changed military family leave in a few important ways:

  • Veterans defined. One of the reasons why Congress amended the FMLA was to allow time off for employees to care for family members who had served in the military and later manifested serious health problems, notably PTSD. The final regulations define “serious injury,” and make clear that injuries are covered whether they manifest before or after the veteran leaves the military. The veteran must have been in the military in the five years before the employee first takes FMLA leave. However, the time between the Congressional amendments (October 28, 2009) and the effective date of the final regulations (March 8, 2013) doesn’t count against this five-year limit. The Department excluded this time because employers weren’t required to give leave to care for an injured veteran during this period. 
  • Qualifying exigencies expanded. As required by Congress, the final rule expands qualifying exigency leave to cover not only family members who are members of the National Guard and Reserves, but also family members who are in the regular armed forces and are deployed to a foreign country. This type of leave is intended to allow employers to handle practical matters arising from a family member’s deployment. The final regulations make a few changes to this type of leave. For example, employees may take up to 15 days off for a family member’s rest and recuperation leave (the previous limit was five days). The final regulations also add a new type of qualifying exigency leave, to allow employees to take time off to make arrangements for a military family member’s parent who is incapable of self-care. For example, the employee might need to hire a caretaker for the parent, tour care facilities, and so on.

The Department of Labor has issued a helpful FAQ set on the final regulations.

Caring for an Adult Child Under the FMLA

This week, the Department of Labor’s Wage and Hour Division issued its first Administrator’s Interpretation of the new year. The Interpretation clarifies who qualifies as an adult “son or daughter” for whom an employee may take time off under the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA).

The FMLA allows employees to take time off to care for a son or daughter with a serious health condition. If the child is 18 or older, however, additional requirements apply. The child must not only have a serious health condition for which he or she is in need of care, but must also have a disability (as defined by the Americans with Disabilities Act) that renders the child incapable of caring for him- or herself.

These requirements were already in place, set out in the law and regulations. The Interpretation makes these additional points:

  • The adult child’s disability may begin after the child turns 18. Previously, there was some confusion about a parent could take FMLA leave to care for a child who became disabled as an adult or only for a child who was under the age of 18 at the onset of the disability. The Interpretation makes clear that the age of onset isn’t a factor. For example, an employee may take FMLA leave to care for a 30-year-old child who becomes disabled as the result of a car accident or cancer diagnosis. 
  • The more lenient standards adopted in the ADA Amendments Act (ADAAA) apply to the FMLA. The ADAAA eased the requirements for proving a disability in order to ensure coverage for more people. For example, a disease that would be disabling when active counts as a disability, even when it is in remission. (For more on the ADAAA, see Nolo’s article ADA Amendments:  More Protections Against Disability Discrimination.) This broader standard is to be used when determining whether an adult child has a disability.
  • Not every disability will qualify under the FMLA, however. The adult child must also be incapable of self-care, which will not be the case for every disability. Someone is incapable of self-care only if that person requires “active assistance or supervision” in at least three activities of daily living. These include basic activities such as grooming and hygiene, bathing, dressing, and eating. They also include things like cooking, shopping, maintaining a home, using public transportation, and so on. An adult child whose disability is in remission or controlled by medication may be fully capable of self-care; therefore, the child’s parent would not be entitled to time off under the FMLA.
  • Employees may be able to use regular FMLA leave to care for an adult child who is injured in military service. Currently, the FMLA gives employees whose children suffer a serious illness or injury while serving in the military the right to take 26 weeks of leave in a single 12-month period. However, this leave entitlement doesn’t renew every year, like the other types of FMLA leave (for which an employee may take only 12 weeks off per year). Unless the adult child suffers a new injury, or another of the employee’s children is also injured, the employee’s right to take 26 weeks off is a one-time-only entitlement. The Interpretation clarifies that an employee who has used up this leave may, in the following year, be entitled to take regular FMLA leave if the adult child’s serious injury qualifies as a disability and renders the child incapable of self-care. This will be a significant relief to parents of wounded service members, whose injuries often require extended or even life-long assistance.

You can find detailed information on every aspect of the FMLA, including how it dovetails with the requirements of the ADA, in The Essential Guide to Family and Medical Leave.

FMLA and State Employers

Last week, the Supreme Court decided a case involving a state employee who sued for violation of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), Coleman v. Court of Appeals of Maryland. The arguments in the case were about federalism: how far one sovereign (the federal government, acting through Congress) can go in imposing liability on another (a state government). However, in reaching its decision — against the employee — the Court missed the entire point of the FMLA.

The facts are pretty basic: Daniel Coleman asked his employer, the Maryland Court of Appeals, for sick leave. His employer denied his request and told him he would be fired if he didn’t resign. Coleman sued for violation of the FMLA, charing that his employer failed to grant him time off for his own serious health condition as required by the law. His employer defended itself by saying that it was immune from suit because Congress didn’t have the right to subject it to money damages for violating the FMLA.

In our federal system of government, there are limits on the obligations Congress can impose on the states. At issue in this case was Congress’s right to enforce the guarantees of the Equal Protection Clause of the Constitution, which the federal government has used to remedy discrimination by the states (originally, race discrimination against the newly freed slaves). To subject a state to monetary damages under a federal law, that law must clearly indicate that intent; must be tailored to remedy or prevent Equal Protection violations; and must impose remedies that are proportional to that goal. In this case, what everyone disagreed about was whether or not the provisions allowing leave for an employee’s own serious health condition was intended to address sex discrimination, which violates the Equal Protection Clause.

The Supreme Court decided years ago that the FMLA’s provision allowing leave to care for family members was intended to remedy sex discrimination, and so could properly be enforced against the states for money damages. Because women are still the primary care providers in our society, the Court had no trouble finding that the caregiver provision was aimed at sex discrimination. In the Coleman case, however, the Court found that the self-care provision — the allowance of time off for the employee’s own serious health care condition — addressed discrimination based on illness, not discrimination based on gender. Therefore, the Court found that Congress didn’t have the right to require states to pay money damages for violating this section of the law.

Unfortunately, in parsing the case so finely, the Court ignored the history and purpose of the FMLA. The FMLA was born of disputes over pregnancy leave. Women’s rights advocates were divided as to how to address this fundamental difference between the sexes in the workplace. Fighting for pregnancy leave and time off to recover from childbirth seemed necessary to safeguard women’s right to workplace equality; yet it also created a fundamental difference in the way employers were to treat men and women, with the possible outcome that employers would discriminate against women to avoid having to provide this benefit. The FMLA — and specifically, the right to time off for one’s own serious health condition, the category of leave that includes pregnancy and childbirth — was the eventual solution. By making the right to leave gender-neutral, advocates hoped to frame pregnancy as just one of the many reasons why an employee might need time off, and thereby diminish the likelihood of sex discrimination among employers while also protecting the right to leave. By allowing parental and caregiving leave for men and women equally, the FMLA also sought to break the sex-based stereotype of women as primary caregivers. The whole law as a package, and particularly the provision allowing leave for one’s own serious health condition, was intended precisely to combat sex discrimination. Justice Ginsberg’s dissent explains this history and intent clearly, as does the amicus brief of the National Partnership for Women & Families, the group that was instrumental in drafting and advocating for the law decades ago.